Through out world history, student movement has an important rule in each country. Students, with their independence and critical thinking, have the responsibility to supervise the run of government. Also, in Indonesia, student position themselves as the government controller by sounding people’s voice. Since 1965, the power of student movement has been proven by pointing to the moment of shifting from old order to the new order. Also, this power takes a part again while falling down the New Order in 1998. With their intellectual ability, they make discussion, writing, and demonstration to express people’s voice. However, when expressing their opinion in front of public, sometimes a clash can not be avoided. It could be between students and the cops, students and resident, or may be three of them in the same time. For instance is the class between students, residents, and cops in Makassar 5 March 2010. Triggered by the attack toward the office of HMI (Islamic Student association) by unrecognized people at 3 March, students accused the cops as the person behind the attack. As the result, students decided to strike back the cops at 4 March. This clash made the local resident nauseated, and involved to the conflict.
However, in viewing this case, we depend on the way of this case be delivered by the mass media. Each mass media has its own style in informing something. It could be from the sentence pattern, diction, or the using of tone in the writing. Like the case above, between two mass media with different background, one story can be delivered in various ways. Also, this tendency can give different impact to the reader while reading the case. Therefore, we need to read news, not only by the surface, but also to analyze it deeply.
In this essay, I would like to compare the way of two online editions of The Jakarta Post and The Jakarta Globe in delivering the news about student demonstration in Makassar 5 March 2010. Although both media use English as the language, they have different perspective related to the background. The Jakarta Post is the largest English newspaper in Indonesia which is published by PT Bina Media Tenggara. It is owned by the biggest Indonesian consortium, the Gramedia Group. The printed edition was launched at 25 April 1983 after the discussion between Indonesia Minister of Information Ali Moertopo and Mr. Jusuf Wanandi, who represented the government-backed Golkar newspaper Suara Karya. Government decided to allow the publishing in order to fight against the foreign perspective by Indonesia’s views regarding the international issue through English-newspaper. For the online edition (www.thejakartapost.com), The Jakarta Post has just made this on June 1994. On the other hand, The Jakarta Globe is relatively a new English-newspaper in Indonesia which was published at 12 November 2008 by PT Jakarta Globe Media. This newspaper provides an independent view beside the governments. Since the first date of the publishing, this newspaper has launched the online edition in address www.thejakartaglobe.com.
By comparing both online media which have different background, I will examine my hypothesis that is both thejakartapost.com and thejakartaglobe.com has different perspective in viewing the student movement in Indonesia. I carry out this hypothesis based on my pre-supposition that each media has own ideology behind. Moreover, the method I used is by comparing an article from thejakartapost.com and thejakartaglobe.com which deliver same story. The first article is from thejakartapost.com titled “Cops busted over violence by students in Makassar”, which I got from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/03/06/cops-busted-over-violence-students-makassar.html at 21 March 2010 3:30 pm. Also, this article will be compared to the second article from thejakartaglobe.com titled” Police Head Apologizes for Student Clashes in Makassar” which I downloaded from http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/national/police-head-apologizes-for-student-clashes-in-makassar/362275 at 21 March 2010 3:35 pm. Both articles will be reviewed with the Critical Discourse Analysis theory (CDA) by Normand Fairclough. This theory analyzes the discourse by its text and context critically; to reveal the writer’s implied ideology which is can be seen from the language, symbols, the real construction, relation, and the identity within the text.
Moreover, there are three dimensions according to Norman Fairclough in dividing the discourse analysis: text, discourse practice, and sociocultural practice. At the first dimension, text is analyzed by it’s linguistically approach through the vocabularies, syntax, semantically meaning, sentence pattern, and cohesion. This analysis is aimed to see the representation, relation, and identity within text. At the second dimension, the discourse practice focuses on the participants and all ideologies behind. It views how the writer as the producer makes his writing and what will writer deliver to the reader as consumer, and the intellectual background as reader while reading the text. However, the sociocultural practice regarded as the dimension when the analysis is focusing on the other aspect beside the text. It considers him outside elements such as culture, society, or political pressure around the text. By all those dimensions, observer can see the implied message from both different style of news presenting.
Theoretical Approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis
Before go forward to our discussion about mass media’s view through Critical Discourse Analysis, it’s better to understand the definition of word “discourse” and “Discourse Analysis”. According to Barbara Johnstone in her book titled Introduction to Discourse Analysis (2002), discourse means “actual instances of communication in the medium of language”. This sentence refers to the basic definition of discourse which is related to linguistic studies. However, Michel Foucault gave rather different definition for word “discourse”. Foucault identifies discourse as the crucial element that works in the matter of power relation (Johnstone, 2001: 10). This term has a very strong connection to the political ideology and authority. Also, discourse is used as a tool by certain group to rule their power and domination toward culture and science (Hadi, 2008: 2).
Moreover, the discourse analysis itself refers to a methodology that can help reader in answering many question related to text (Johnstone, 202: 4). It can be used to reveal the writer’s ideology behind a text, how the language change, purpose behind certain sentence or utterance, and so on (Ibid, 2002: 4).
This methodology become more specific into several approaches and one of them is Critical Discourse Analysis. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) not only uses language as the media to be analyzed, but also relate the language with another context (Yuanita, 2009: 10). This approach has the main duty to reveal the implied ideology behind a discourse (Yuwono, 2008: 2). For instance, in many newspapers, they have certain ideology or implied purposes that are going to be delivered to the readers. Realized or not, this ideology is acquired by the readers indirectly, and build certain social influence in community. Moreover, in his theory, Norman Fairclough, uses language as the media to analyze any implied meaning behind the discourse. Language is taken as the social practice that used not only as the media of expression and communication by certain community, but also considered as something that is shaped by social construction (Fairclough, 1995: 131).
However, in this paper, I will use all of three dimensions which are mentioned by Fairclaugh to examine an article from thejakartapost.com and thejakartaglobe.com, and reveal the implied ideology from both newspapers. Practically, this analysis goes through the text as the media, and will be related to the discourse and social culture practice as well. First, I will analyze the representation being shown through the text. This part is used to represent an event or person which is involved in the text. It could be from the word choice (diction), the sentence pattern, or the theme exposed in the text. Second, the analysis will try to show the relation and identity of every players involved in the text. In this context, these players include the journalist, reader, and third parties that involved in the text. Whether the journalist positions himself as the main player (interpreting all the events by his language), put all players in the equal role, or hide him to indirectly give any support to certain player. By all this method, observer can see what is going occur behind the text itself, included the ideology, purpose, or any issues which are going to rise by the discourse.